Principais variedades e seus azeites

Excelente descrição da Oliveira, em Italiano (Fonte AgroNotizie):

Olivo 
Olea europaea L.

L’olivo o ulivo (Olea europaea L.) è una pianta da frutto appartenente alla famiglia delle Oleaceae. È una pianta molto longeva: in condizioni climatiche favorevoli può vivere anche mille anni. I suoi frutti, le olive, sono impiegate per l’estrazione dell’olio e, in misura minore, per l’impiego diretto nell’alimentazione. A causa del sapore amaro dovuto al contenuto in polifenoli, l’uso delle olive come frutti nell’alimentazione richiede però trattamenti specifici finalizzati alla deamaricazione (riduzione dei principi amari), realizzata con metodi vari. ll frutto è una drupa ovale, di colore variabile dal verde al violaceo. La polpa è carnosa e contiene il 25-30 % di olio, raccolto all’interno delle sue cellule sottoforma di piccole goccioline. Il seme è legnoso, ovoidale, ruvido e di colore marrone. È una pianta sempreverde, la cui attività è pressoché continua con attenuazione nel periodo invernale. Per quanto riguarda le cultivar, il parametro che viene maggiormente utilizzato nella classificazione è quello che le suddivide in relazione alla destinazione del frutto. In base a ciò si distinguono: cultivar con olive da olio, ad esempio per la produzione di olio Evo – olio extravergine di oliva (Bosana, Canino, Carboncella, Casaliva, Coratina, Dolce Agogia, Frantoio, Leccino, Moraiolo, Pendolino, Rosciola, Taggiasca), cultivar con olive da mensa (Ascolana Tenera, Oliva di Cerignola, Sant’Agostino), cultivar a duplice attitudine (Carolea, Itrana, Tonda Iblea).

Conheça algumas variedades de oliveiras plantadas no Brasil:

Arbequina

Árvore:
Vigor: de baixa a média
Porte: aberto – chorão;
Densidade de Copa: Média.
Inicia a produção cedo. Considerada precoce.
Variedade de altas produções, constantes e crescentes.
Planta rústica, época de floração intermédia, apresenta produtividade alta e constante.

Fruto:
Fruto pequeno, globoso, simétrico, sem bico e com poucas lenticelas. Maturação desuniforme.
Azeite

A força de retenção dos frutos é media.
Variedade azeiteira de alta produção, azeite de boa qualidade, frutado, fresco com cheiro de amêndoas, qualificado por suas excelentes características organolépticas. Possui teores reduzidos de ácido oleico e de polifenóis o que lhe confere baixa estabilidade. Por sua composição, os azeites de Arbequina são mais delicados que o de outras variedades, em função da oxidação. Uma vez engarrafados, é importante que sejam resguardados da luz e do calor. Colhida verde acresce sua intensidade!

Arbequina

  • Cultivar proveniente de Arbeca (Catalunha) e muito utilizada nas novas plantações de olival;
  • Variedade rústica, resistente às geadas e adaptável a diferentes condições de clima e solo. De um vigor muito reduzido e uma baixa resistência a solos calcários, adapta-se a terrenos pobres e é resistente ao frio;
  • Copa relativamente reduzida, o que permite maiores densidades de plantação;
  • Variedade muito produtiva e precoce;
  • O fruto pode ser utilizado em conserva;
  • Apresenta bom rendimento em azeite.
Lote #2 Olival Arbequina. Plantado 2009.

Olivopampa Lote #2 Olival Arbequina. Plantado 2009.

Arbosana

Propósito: azeite;
Fertilidade: Parcialmente auto-fértil;
Produtividade: Alternância Boa;
Conteúdo de Azeite: Médio
Habilidade de Enraizamento: Média
Resistência ao despreendimento: Elevada

Árvore
Porte: aberto;
Vigor: muito baixo;

Fruto
Peso Médio: 1,43
Relação Polpa caroço: 4,65
% Grasso: 54,26

Azeite
Azeite de tipo verde de caráter forte, harmônico com níveis de amargo alto, picante e adstringente. Persistente.

Tolerâncias
Frio: Media
Cycloconium oleaginum: Baixa
Pseudomonas savastanoi: Baixa

Coratina

  • Back to Varieties

Origin Italy
Purpose: Oil

 

The Tree
Coratina is one of the most important Italian varieties, especially favoured in the area of Puglia, the largest olive growing area of Italy. This variety adapts very well to different growing environments and conditions.

The Fruit
The fruit is large and oval with no nipple and many small lenticels. The fruit ripens evenly and late in the season. In some years it is also suitable for green table olives.

The Oil
Coratina produces very high quality oil with high levels of polyphenols making it very stable. In Italy the oil produced from Coratina is intensely fruity and pungent. Interestingly these sought after oil characteristics are present in oils produced from Coratina in completely different growing areas like Argentina.

Agronomic Characteristics
Coratina comes into bearing very early and productivity is high and constant. This variety has shown some susceptibility to sooty mould. Coratina is tolerant of cold and in some areas of its native Italy it is planted as a pollinator; however Coratina should be planted with other varieties for cross-pollination.

Comments
This variety will be extremely useful for groves wanting to lengthen their harvesting period as it ripens latter than just about all other varieties.

Koroneiki

Koroneiki
É a principal variedade da Grécia.

Árvore.-
Vigor: médio a baixo
Porte: Aberto
Densidade de Copa: Claras
Produtividade: elevada e constante. Começa a produzir cedo.

Habilidade de enraizar: média

Fruto.-
Ovóide e pequeno, (aprox. 1-2 gramas) possui uma maturação de cedo ao médio da estação.
Azeite

Variedade de alto conteúdo de azeite com
alto conteúdo de acido oléico de excelente estabilidade.

Características Agronômicas
Floresce cedo e produz abundante pólen mas deve ser plantada com polinizadores. Resiste seca mas, não tolera o frio. Resistente ao olho de pavão e moderadamente resistente ao Verticillium.

Picual

Variedad tolerante a tuberculosis (Pseudemonas savastanoi) mas,  muito afetada pelo repilo (Spilocaea oleagina), cochonilha e “prays”.

OLIVE GERMPLASM
cultivars and world-wide collections 
Edition 2005
 

 

Introduction Search Database Authors

Detailed information for cultivar : PICUAL

Main features
References on characterization
References on distribution
Germplasm collections

Main features

 

Purpose: Oil
Fertility: Partially self fertile
Productivity: Constant good
Oil content: High
Rooting ability: Medium

 

Tolerance to  
Bactrocera oleae: Low
Cold: Medium
CuMV: Medium
Cycloconium oleaginum: Low
Drought: Low
Fomes fulvus: Low
Gloeosporium olivarum: Medium
Helicotylenchus digonicus: Low
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus: Low
Iron chlorosis: Medium
Meloidogyne arenaria: Low
Meloidogyne incognita: Low
Meloidogyne javanica: Low
Mesocriconema xenoplax: Low
Mycocentrospora cladosporioides: Medium
Pratylenchus penetrans: Low
Pratylenchus vulnus: Low
Prays oleae: Low
Pseudomonas savastanoi: Medium
SLRV: Medium
Saissetia oleae: Low
   
Salinity: Medium
Soil moisture: Medium
Verticillium dahliae: Low
Picual
Origin Spain
Purpose: Oil The Tree
Picual is a medium vigour tree with a spreading and dense canopy. It comes into production early. In Australia it has started to bear heavy commercial crops before most other varieties. It shows constant and high productivity and is very hardy. The Picual variety represents about 90% of the olive trees planted in the Jaen region of Andalucia , Spain , the largest olive growing area in the world.The Fruit
Fruit shape is oval and curved with a nipple on the end. Both oil content and yield are high. The fruit ripens mid to late season. During the first years, fruits tend to be larger than normal and they are highly rated for pickling as black olives for the firmness of their flesh. The Oil
The oil yield of Picual is high, although it is known to be variable in the first years. The oil is of good quality with a very particular character and extraordinarily high stability. Picual oil is often blended with other oils that have low stability.Agronomic Characteristics
Picual is highly rated for its early start to bearing and its high productivity. The fruit has low attachment making it suitable for mechanical harvesting. It is tolerant of cold, salinity and excess soil moisture. Picual is self-compatible, and in Australia is proving to be a good pollinator for a number of other varieties. Picual is a hardy variety and adapts well to different climates and soil conditions. It is sensitive to verticillium wilt and peacock spot. Comments
Picual is performing outstandingly in many areas of Australia . During 2002 harvesting season, 20,000 32-month-old trees in a grove in northern Victoria have achieved an average of 15 kilograms per tree or just over 6 tonnes per hectare.
 

PICUAL

Names – From the Spanish olive family including Nevadillo Blanco, Nevadillo, Nevado Blanco, Blanco,  Lopereno and Marteno.

General – Picual is the most common oil cultivar in Spain. The major zones are as follows (1984): Jaen = 422,000 ha (90% of total olive orchards), Cordoba = 108,000 ha, Granada = 50,000 ha. In  1995, Picual plantings took up 55% of new orchards in Spain. Both the fruit and  the pit are pointed in shape. Fruit weigh from 2-4gms giving 270 to 470 olives/kg and a flesh-to-pit ratio between 3.8:1 and 6:1. Its high oil content  in Jaen ranges from 23% to 27% and slightly lower in other regions (One report  puts Picual’s oil percentage as high as 30%). When fully ripe, the skin is shiny black and the flesh turns from a light brown to wine pink color.

Climatic Considerations – The Spanish regions in which Picual is most common have cool to cold winters and hot dry summers. See the data for Jaen in the Appendix.

Commercial Viability – Little is known about the cropping habits of Picual in Australia. However, it was tested under the synonym of Nevadillo Blanco in the Mildura trial where it was the fourth heaviest cropper of the fourteen cultivars trialled. The only Australian  oil test that we have seen was done on fruit which had been stored for five months prior to testing which made the results highly inaccurate. However,  Spanish and Italian data ranges from 23% to 28%. Picual oil also has a very high  polyphenolic content which gives it a long shelf life. This fact, along with other quality aspects, makes it very popular variety for blending with other oils from around the Mediterranean.

Pests and Disease – Picual is susceptible to peacock spot (Cycloconium oleaginum or Spilocaea oleaginea), olive fly (Dacus oleae – not found in Australia) and olive moth (Prays oleae). It is resistant to olive knot (not found in Australia).]

Distanciamento sugerido (Mendoza): 8 x 5 ou 7x 5,5

Polinizadores:

Picudo o Carrasqueño de Cordoba: Variedad vigorosa con polen de gran capacidad de germinación . Su aceite es de excelentes caracteristicas organolepticas.

Arbequina é otra variedad que puede ser utilizada como polinizador de Picual…

Manzanilla de Sevilla

Es la variedad de olivo más difundida internacionalmente devido a su productividad y calidad de fruto. Su vigor reducido y su precoz entrada em producción La hacen ideal para plantaciones intensivas. Se la considera susceptible al frio invernal. Presenta elevada relación pulpa hueso y um contenido aceptable de aceite cuando se destina al molino.

Manzanilla

Large, rounded-oval fruit. Skin brilliant purple, changing to deep blue-black when mature. Resists bruising. Ripens early, several weeks earlier than Mission. The pulp parts readily with its bitterness and is exceedingly rich when pickled. Excellent for oil and pickles. Tree spreading, vigorous, a prolific bearer.

 

OLIVE GERMPLASM
cultivars and world-wide collections
Edition 2005
 

 

Introduction Search Database Authors

Detailed information for cultivar : MANZANILLA DE SEVILLA

Main features
References on characterization
References on distribution
Germplasm collections

Main features

 

Purpose: Table
Fertility: Self sterile
Productivity: Alternate good
Oil content: Medium
Rooting ability: High

 

Tolerance to  
Armillariella mellea: Low
Aspidiotus hederae: Low
Bactrocera oleae: Low
CLRV: Low
Cold: Medium
CuMV: Low
Cycloconium oleaginum: Low
Drought: Medium
Fomes fulvus: Medium
Gloeosporium olivarum: Low
Iron chlorosis: Low
Meloidogyne arenaria: High
Meloidogyne hapla: High
Meloidogyne incognita: Low
Meloidogyne javanica: Medium
Mycocentrospora cladosporioides: Medium
Parlatoria oleae: Low
Pratylenchus penetrans: Low
Pratylenchus vulnus: Low
Prays oleae: Low
Pseudomonas savastanoi: Low
Rotylenchulus macrodoratus: Low
SLRV: Low
Saissetia oleae: Low
Salinity: Medium
Soil moisture: Low
Sooty moulds: Low
Sphaeropsis dalmática: Medium
Tylenchulus semipenetrans: Low
Verticillium dahliae: Low
Xiphinema americanum: Medium

“Manzanillo”

Origin Spain
Purpose: Table

The Tree
Manzanillo is one of the most widespread varieties in the world. There is over 50,000 hectares of this variety in the province of Seville . It is also grown in America, Portugal, Israel, Argentina and Australia. It is the one of the most highly rated table olive varieties in the world. Manzanillo is a low vigor variety with a spreading and medium dense canopy. It has an early start to bearing and its productivity is high but alternate.

The Fruit
The fruit ripens early and is usually harvested green for processing, but is suitable for almost all styles of table olive processing. The fruit is of medium size and is spherical in shape and has a high removal force.

The Oil
Manzanillo has medium oil content but is high quality. Can be very hard to extract, especially when fruit has high moisture content.

Agronomic Characteristics
Manzanillo is sensitive to cold and very sensitive to Verticillium wilt and Peacock spot. In Spain it is grown without pollinators but in California , Israel and now Australia we know that it needs cross pollination. Manzanillo has been widely planted in Australia , with high expectations placed on it, especially for the production of olive oil, which it will find hard to achieve, as it is primarily a table variety.

MANZANILLO

Other Names – Manzanilla – Spanish  Subvarieties – de Sevilla, Fina, Carrasquenà and Serrana.

General – Fruit is medium sized (4.8gms) yielding 200-280 olives/kg and has a flesh-to-pit ratio of 8.2:1. It is an oval shaped, thick skinned fruit with excellent texture. Generally light green colored with tiny whitish dots. Mature fruit is a slightly violet black and has a medium/high oil content. The tree is generally low and spreading reaching an average of 7m at maturity if left unpruned. Spain currently has approximately 100,000 ha of Manzanillo orchards.

Climatic Considerations – Gives heaviest crops in mild climates with little frost such as Spain’s Guadalquivir Valley and the province of Seville and California’s Tulare, King’s and Fresno counties and the southern Joaquin Valley. Manzanillo is sensitive to extended  or extreme cold periods where, for example, the average July temperatures are less than 8 degrees Celsius and frosts falling below minus 5 degrees Celsius occur regularly each year. Southern hemisphere harvests generally occur between early March and late April to avoid possible early frost damage to  fruit.

Commercial Viability – Generally known for its ease of processing due to its firm flesh and easiness to pit. Only 20-22% of the total fruit is removed during pitting. Accounts for 60% of the Mediterranean’s green pickling fruit. 83% of California’s olive orchards are currently being planted to Manzanillo. Irrigated trials carried out at Mildura  (SA) which compared the growth habits and annual yields of 14 cultivars over ten years showed Manzanillo to be the heaviest cropper. It is considered the best  dual purpose olive cultivar in the world. Mr Vicente Rico of Spain’s Sadrym table olive machinery company has two words of advice for Australia, “Plant  Manzanillo!”

Manzanillo olive oil is produced throughout the world and is very well accepted on the international olive oil market. Further research on  Manzanillo oil can be obtained from Olives Australia.

Pests and DiseaseManzanillo is susceptible to olive knot (not found in Australia) and verticillium  wilt.

Pollinators – The occasional  Sevillano is said to increase Manzanillo crops, however heavy crops are still  achieved without cross pollination. Further research being done in California  may give additional pollination details in the future.

Distanciamento sugerido:  7 x 4,5 ou 7 x 5 mediana densidad

 

 

Ascolana Tenera

Es la principal variedad de aceituna de mesa italiana y se há difundido internacionalmente. Se considera tolerante al frio pero exigente em terrenos de calidad. De floración tardia y elevado aborto ovárico, mejora su cuajado con polinizadores. Los frutos presentan uma maduración em verde muy temprana y se adaptan al aderezo en verde en salmuera. Es apreciada por su tamaño (8,8 g) y elevada relación Pulpa/hueso. Por el contrario, presenta uma pulpa muy delicada que se daña fácilmente em La recolección. Es tolerante al repilo y tuberculosis pero susceptible a La mosca.

Ascolano

Very large, ellipsoidal fruit. Skin color very light even when ripe, pit very small. Fruit is tender and must be handled carefully. Contains very little bitterness and requires only moderate lye treatment. Excellent for pickles, but needs proper aeration during pickling to develop “ripe” color. Tree a heavy bearer, widely adapted.

“Si utilizza esclusivamente in verde e lavorata com el método sivigliano. L’albero ha vigoria  medio-elevata, portamento espanso e dendità della chioma medio-folta; è resistente al freddo e poco suscettibile a la rogna e al cicloconio. La cultivar è solo parzialmente autofertile per cui è necessaria la presenza di piante impollinatrici che nell’ Ascolano sono costituite dalle cv. Lea, Rosciola, e altre. L’ entrata in produzione è tardiva e la produzione sucessive do media entità; la percentuale di polpa è molto alta (intorno 90%), il distacco dal nocciolo è facile e le caratteristiche organolettiche della stessa ottime. Il contenuto in olio è basso, in media il 13,6%.

Ocorre muita cura nella raccolta  e nelle successive laborazione a causa della scarza consistenza della polpa..

 

Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Service – AGPS

OLIVE GERMPLASM
cultivars and world-wide collections

Edition 2005

 

 

Introduction Search Database Authors

Detailed information for cultivar : ASCOLANA TENERA

Main features
References on characterization
References on distribution
Germplasm collections

Main features

 

Purpose: Table
Fertility: Self sterile
Productivity: Alternate intermediate
Oil content: Medium
Rooting ability: High

 

Tolerance to  
Bactrocera oleae: Low
Cold: High
CuMV: High
Cycloconium oleaginum: Low
Drought: Medium
Fomes fulvus: Medium
Gloeosporium olivae: Medium
Gloeosporium olivarum: Low
Iron chlorosis: High
Meloidogyne arenaria: High
Meloidogyne hapla: High
Meloidogyne incognita: Low
Meloidogyne javanica: Low
Parlatoria oleae: Medium
Pratylenchus vulnus: Low
Prays oleae: Low
Pseudomonas savastanoi: High
Rotylenchulus macrodoratus: Low
SLRV: Medium
Saissetia oleae: Low
Sooty moulds: High
Stictis panizzei: Low
Tylenchulus semipenetrans: Low
Verticillium dahliae: Low
   

Ascolana Tenera

Pianta molto esigente per condizioni ambientali; predilige terreni freschi e sciolti con buon contenuto in calcare.
Entra precocemente in produzione. La fruttificazione è elevata solo quando le condizioni agronomiche sono ottimali. Fiorisce tardivamente e presenta un elevato numero di fiori con ovario abortito. Autoincompatibile; come impollinatori sono stati segnalati: “S.Caterina”, “Itrana”, “Rosciola”, “Morchiaio” e “Giarraffa”.
La produttività è media e costante. La maturazione precoce e la consistenza della polpa permettono di utilizzare i frutti per la produzione di olive verdi in salamoia. Il rapporto polpa/nocciolo corrisponde a 6 e il distacco della polpa risulta agevole.
Per questa cultivar è stata segnalata una particolare tolleranza al freddo, all’occhio di pavone, alla rogna e alla carie del legno. Viceversa, è risultata sensibile agli attacchi della mosca dell’olivo.
Sono disponibili alcuni cloni.

Fonte: “Catalogo Mondiale delle Varietà di Olivo” – Consiglio Oleicolo Internazionale – http://www.internationaloliveoil.org

 

AZAPA

Other names – Azapena and Sevillana de Azapa

General – Fruit size can vary greatly – it is medium to very large (8gms average) yielding anywhere from  60-300 olives/kg and has an elongated shape with a somewhat pronounced point on  the end. Fruit is very fleshy with a thin skin. Derives its name from the  Chilean valley in which it is grown, where it accounts for about 90% of the  total plantings. Seems to originate from the Gordal Sevillana.

Climatic Considerations – Suitable  for warmer ‘no frost’ regions. Also being tested in other regions of Australia to check its tolerance to cold and ability to adapt.

Commercial Viability – Not yet bearing in large Australian commercial orchards, however small mature plantings are producing medium sized crops with a slight tendency toward alternate  bearing. It is the most highly rated cultivar in Chile, South America where it  is used entirely for table fruit. Easy to pit if the caustic treatment is done  correctly. Internationally considered a good table olive.

Pests and Disease – No data could be sourced.

Variedades de Aceituna